Friday, May 22, 2020

Preventing Terrorism Government Control in Communication...

Surely the government should have some leeway over electronic communications, so as to prevent further terrorism. The fact that the terrorist attack on September 11th could have been prevented, had the information been accessed in time, exhibits the need for more government control in communication. According to Harris, â€Å"The Watchers† had all of the information needed to alert authorities of the incoming attack, but did not piece it together in time. These â€Å"Watchers† surely could have prevented the attack with more formidable access to the intelligence needed. Some would suggest that the intensive surveillance by the government could be turned in the favor of those wishing to attack us. Attacks such as this have taken place in Greece,†¦show more content†¦However, the government will not step out of bounds of the law in such monitoring conditions (Cornell). Additionally, a benefit of the government role in security through monitoring is the tracking o f current criminals or suspects. The electronic alternative to rehabilitation certainly cuts down on government revenue being poured into criminal cases. The electronic method significantly reduces the amount of taxpayer money going into the juvenile detention centers. Furthermore, this electronic alternative genuinely increases the success rate of the rehabilitation of previous criminals. The reason for this success is attributed to the familiarity and comfort while being allowed to stay in their own home, while still under government watch. The government can monitor the offender in real time, making sure that the terms of punishment are being met. The device that is worn broadcasts a signal which can be tracked very accurately, conveying the exact location of the wearer. This same technology is used to alert the local police if the offender is near a certain location, such as the house of a known rival, or a spot known to have illicit drug activity. This signal is automatically s ent out to alert the police of the exact position of the offender. The electronic method of surveillance in such cases is beneficial not only to the police who keep watch over the offenders, but also to the offender, offering a more comfortable alternative to sitting in a cellShow MoreRelatedTerrorism And The Social Media1719 Words   |  7 Pages Terrorism and the use of social media to further its objective is a major concern affecting the world today. With the growing threat of terrorism, studying its operational techniques help to determine how and why terror groups are succeeding. Understanding the impact that terror groups have on marginalized populations through propaganda and a manipulation of facts will help in developing a greater understanding of terror group’s ability to mount successful campaigns globally. Given the threat thatRead MoreEssay on Domestic Terrorism1651 Words   |  7 PagesDomestic Terrorism National terrorism has been the focus of attention since September 11. But now domestic terrorism is becoming increasingly common among hate groups across the nation. Domestic terrorism can be defined as visible crime, or â€Å"street crime.† These acts would consist of violent crimes, (acts against people in which injury or death results) property crimes (acts that threaten property held by individuals or the state) and public order crimes. (acts that threaten the general well-beingRead MoreIt Comes To Light That Police Departments Across The States1741 Words   |  7 PagesIt comes to light that police departments across the states play an important role in fighting and preventing terrorism. They are being trained to learn and investigate local terrorist threats throughout the United States, and to make sure the community is protected from such harm. In to do so police officers will have to extend they stay in the community and be involved in such activities and improve the community trust, another thing they will have to do is to build a partnership with other localRead MoreRoles Of Law Enforcement And Intelligence1503 Words   |  7 PagesRoles of Law Enforcement and Intelligence in Counter-Terrorism After 9/11 September 11, 2001 marks one of the darkest, if not the darkest, days in United States history. It is a day in the history of our country in which everyone remembers where they were and what they were doing when they heard the news that two planes had flown into the World Trade Center in New York City, taking out both of the Twin Towers. All in all there were close to 3,000 people who lost their lives on that fateful day betweenRead MoreDescription And Description Of Personal Details1716 Words   |  7 Pagespersonal details, physical description, identification means, occupation and skills, economic and financial information, behavioural data, contacts and associates, means of communication used, means of transport used, information relating to criminal activities, references to other data bases in which information on the person is stored and information on legal persons associated with the data referred to under economic and financial information. People working in Europol have i mmunity with the EURead MoreSecurity Background And Threats Of Terrorism Essay1374 Words   |  6 PagesOne. Security background and threats of terrorism Since the beginning of a 21st century, an international security environment has been proved to be more volatile, unpredictable, complex and ambiguity with their challenging effects in various ways. Thus, those challenging situations take into particular considerations when combating terrorism throughout the national security strategy. The civil war, sectarian spillovers of crises, state catastrophe in central Africa and the Middle East will likelyRead MoreAfter The 9/11 Attack, Many Agencies DidnT Know What To1630 Words   |  7 Pagesand that terrorism was the cause of it, that s why President Bush created a new defense called Homeland Security to prevent that from happening again. He had to arrange everything in the Criminal Justice system to place it together, but in order for everything to go out smoothly federal agencies will need the help of local law enforcement because they will be the first responders on the crime scene when something bad happens. Local law enforcement usu ally have it concerns with preventing or solvingRead MoreTerrorism And The United Nations Security Council1351 Words   |  6 PagesTerrorism by its very nature disrupts international peace and security through premeditated, political violence. The 11th September attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon disrupted the global economy. The attacks spawned and facilitated widespread personal fear, panic and economic dislocation (Bergen, 2002). According to the United Nations Security Council, one of the objectives of the terrorists was to create a state of global anarchy by means of influencing the conduct of governmentRead MoreTerrorism And Its Effects On The United States1776 Words   |  8 PagesPreventing Terrorism in the United States is a hard thing to overcome, but the government is trying their best to control and prevent terrorist attacks from happening. â€Å"The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, were a turning point in American history and demonstrated that the government must have the authority necessary to defend against future attacks, including the right to use the best technology to intercept potentially conspiratorial communications (Jacobs and Newton 1). Having advancedRead MoreFederal Bureau Of Investigations And The Central Intelligence Agency1633 Words   |  7 Pagesthe United States Government had totally responsibility. By disregarding cues of possible terrorist attacks and constant mistak es within the American Intelligence for not planning ahead, the United States failed to achieve its number one goal as a governing body: not keeping its citizens safe. It is important to dig into the issue of the disaster of 9/11 and completely understand the reason for failed prevention efforts. Moreover adding to these issues was the lack of communication and information

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Analysis Of Jonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal And Li...

There are many uses of satire in Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal and in Li Ruzhen’s Flowers in the Mirror. Both of these readings address social issues during the 17th and 18th century and address them with various uses of satire to help emphasize their thoughts of dislike and carry that to their readers. Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal proposes using poor bastard children as food to help the poverty level along with other social issues that come with poor women carrying children and having to take care of them. Li Ruzhen’s Flowers in the Mirror gives a very detailed and eye opening view of a country where men and women’s roles in society are reversed to give readers and insight and different perspective of the social issues of how women are treated. To truly understand what Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal and Li Ruzhen’s Flowers in the Mirror were trying to portray with the use of satire, a deeper look into the time era and s ocial issues of when it was written needs to be revealed and addressed. Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal addresses issues with the poor Irish peasants that were too poor to feed their families. The British Government is partially to blame for the poverty as they exploited the Irish and never gave them a chance to come out of the poverty stricken routine that they were in. Swift has used satire in writings before, including Gulliver’s Travels, to get his points across of social unevenness. In A Modest Proposal Swift gives the idea of eating

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Covey 7 Habits Analysis Free Essays

string(32) " when relating to your members\." I have always been a firm believer that there are many different types of leaders. To be a leader you must have natural ability, and have the ability to listen and grow. Being in many leadership roles and positions has helped me to become the best person that I can be. We will write a custom essay sample on Covey 7 Habits Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Looking at leadership and management however opened my eyes to a new concept. I had never before realized how much the two go hand in hand. I feel the two words are synonymous in some aspects. My Leadership and Management style helped me to realize what kind of natural skills I have as a leader, and what kind of defined skills I have as a manager. My â€Å"Lamp† chart really was split between the two entities. I always thought that I was much more of a leader than a manager. Come to find out I have skills in both sides that compliment one another. My Leadership style consists of many components, but the main two are my creating abilities and my empowering abilities. I feel that these two are the natural traits that I have, and they are things that I have expanded on the more I learn about others, and myself. I have always been a creative person, the one with the ideas and new concepts. This has allowed me to be an effective leader in my positions to find other ways to do things, and to be successful at implementing new ideas. I also have the ability to empower those around me. What this means is to get people excited and willing to do whatever it takes to accomplish the goal or task we may face. I do this by believing in those around me and giving others the tools they need to lead themselves. My management style however is a bit different. I believe management skills are learned unlike leadership traits. Through the positions I have held on campus, in high school, an in the work place I have learned to become more responsible and in turn some vital managerial skills. Through my â€Å"LAMP† I have come to realize my top two managerial skills are organization, and I am very job centered. I have not always been an organized person, and still believe that there is much room for improvement. With that being said my organizational skills have vastly improved while in college and it is due to the roles I have had within clubs and organizations, and most importantly my fraternity. Organization didn’t come easy for me, but I realized to become an effective manager I needed to be organized, this directly translates to being an effective leader as well. Poor organization can lead to loss of credibility and that is something I try to stay away from. I am also very job centered. This means I like to know what needs to be done, by whom, and with a set date. If I have all of that I am able to delegate and get jobs finished in a timely manner. Being job centered really means I like to have defined roles. Who’s doing what is a big deal for me, especially in managerial and leadership positions. Now the question is are Leadership and Management the same? I think not. There is a reason that the two are separated on the test. Both Leadership and Management skills are vital when taking any role or position of power. The differences lie in how you take charge and take control. Leadership skills I feel are things you are born with. Leaders also are people who are highly revered, someone who you look up to or want to be. While Managerial skills can be taught if enough hard work and effort is put in. Yet managers sometimes are not revered as a role model because for the most part they tend to be your boss and make less of a personnel connection. This is why I feel having defined skills in both areas can make you the most effective person you can be. Being a great leader allows you to connect with people, excite people, and build credibility. While being a good manager means you delegate well, you stay organized and on task, and you oversee/stay on top of those whom you are managing. According to Kotter in the article What Leaders Do â€Å"Management is about coping with complexity. Leadership, by contrast, is about coping with change. † Good management is what keeps chaos from occurring. Kotter talks about how management is a major component in consistency and profitability if we look at it from a business aspect. This article describes how management is all about the complexities and how to good managers cope. â€Å"More change always demands more leadership. † (pg.. 86 Kotter. ) Things are ever changing today. This is why leadership as a practice has now become so important. Kotter talks about the abilities of leaders to run with the change and make things work with little room for discrepancy or chaos. A good leader is someone who can roll with the punches, figure out a new plan of action, and take charge all at once. Leadership is something that takes courage to make the tough decisions when something arises. The two styles although different do go hand in hand. When looking at Leadership and Management in relation to the Greek community we see how vital it is to have students who exemplify both qualities. When obtaining a Leadership role within a Fraternity or a Sorority you are taking a lot of responsibility. To run a Greek house you must have the support and respect from all members, otherwise you can accomplish nothing. Fraternities and Sororities were built on the basis that we share the same goals and aspirations, it is the Leaders job to remind everyone that so they are able to carry on together. Leadership skills also come in handy when relating to your members. You read "Covey 7 Habits Analysis" in category "Essay examples" If you approach them as a manager instead of their leader they may lose that connection with you. With that being said the Managerial side of running a Chapter also is very important. I like to think of this as the work side. When managing a Greek house you must always be on top of the logistical or behind the scenes work that many members never really get a chance to see, whether it be connecting with nationals, working with housing corp. , or going to IFC meetings. This is where being a manager plays a big role because with all of this work organizational skills, delegation, and planning all must take place otherwise mayhem could occur. Once things get out of hand it is hard to pull them back, that is why staying on top of everything as a manager is just as important as being the leader that everyone wants to follow. Another way to look at leadership and management in daily life is Stephen Covey’s book The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. The book looks at how to be the most effective person you can be. The steps you need to take to do so is also a major component in the book. The 7 Habits prepares you to change your outlook on what it really means to be effective, and in turn what it takes to be a leader. Habit one is Be Proactive. Sounds pretty self-explanatory but when you look more in depth you can really learn a lot from this habit. Being proactive is the root to being effective. It is the first step away from dependence towards independence. Being proactive means taking initiative, getting things done, and overall taking control of your life. When you become proactive you take responsibility for your choices. You learn what it means to really take accountability and get things done. Being proactive really is all about getting yourself to do what needs to be done and being accountable for that. I have personally seen myself start to be more proactive the older I get. I was a huge procrastinator when I was younger and was always rushing to get things done. Now by being more proactive I have found time to do others things and take on more responsibilities as a leader. Habit two is, begin with an end in mind. This boils down to setting goals. Whenever starting a project or taking something over know what you want to achieve when you begin. This is very important in measuring success. If you have a goal you have a target you are trying to reach. The more solidified the goal the more prepared you can become while trying to achieve it. To begin with an end in mind is like setting a personal goal or mission statement that can be applied to everything that you do, thus knowing what you can and want to achieve. I find habit two extremely insightful. I have always been an activator, someone who loves to start things and get them off the ground, my problem sometimes is once I start I don’t know where to go. This habit is really on that I connected with because I feel it can help me solidify what I want to do and where I want to go when starting any project in my life. Habit three is put first things first. In other words it is to prioritize by importance rather than urgency. Many times people get caught up and procrastinate, leaving them behind and always rushing to catch up on due dates. In the book there is a chart called the time management matrix, which shows four quadrants. The ideal quadrant is two, if you are living in this quadrant you have your priorities in check and have some free time to enjoy life. Most people however live in quadrant one, which is crisis management and never having free time because of poor pre planning. I find this habit to be one of the more difficult ones to live by. In my â€Å"LAMP† planning was my lowest strength on the management side. I struggle with putting first things first because sometimes I literally do not put first things first. This is something since reading the seven habits that I know I need to work on for my own leadership and management needs. Habit four is think win-win. This chapter explains all the different types of people that are out there. It explains that some people are out there only working for the good of themselves and do not care if they push anyone down to get where they want. This chapter focuses on looking at life from the perspective of win-win. Therefore everyone is no worse off than before. If we always went into a deal looking for the best option for both parties then things would run a lot smoother. This habit teaches us that making the right call and doing the right thing will propel you further than if you are only looking out for your own self interest and nothing else. I feel that I am pretty acclimated with this habit. I have always been the type to seek mutual agreements on deals or trades. I feel that by both parties becoming better off there is more room for working together or trading again in the future. Someone who only looks out for themselves will end up burning many bridges and will have no one to rely on soon enough. Habit Five is seek first to understand, then to be understood. This means to listen to someone, really listen to someone. Habit five is all about understanding someone, fully listening and caring about what they say. In turn they will do the same for you. Empathetic listening is key when connecting and seeing where someone is coming from. This is a great characteristic to have as a leader. When someone feels like they are really being heard, then they will make a conscious effort to hear you out. This will in turn create an environment of complete unity and will make it that much easier to get things done when you can see from others points of views and they can see from yours. I feel that I have been getting better at understanding first then seeking to be understood. Many times during the beginning of my Presidency I would try to be heard first, what I noticed is that nobody listens when all you want is to be heard. Everybody has a voice and those voices need to have the opportunity to share. Once I learned this many people who I had never even connected with much before my term started coming to me for daily advice because I would actually listen to them. In turn I found myself with a mass support system within the house. Habit Six, Synergize. To combine the strengths of everyone in the group for cohesive and effective teamwork is what synergy is all about. You can also use synergy to bring all seven habits together as well. Once you can figure out a way to make them all work then the habits almost condense into one proactive effective lifestyle. To truly understand synergism you must understand and trust the process. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts is a great way to think about synergism. Working to combine the best attributes of people into one is very hard to do but with synergy you must trust others and trust yourself. Synergy can even be related to work, using synergistic energy to bring new ideas and methods is vital to keep things moving and to renew. I feel that because of my Leadership studies minor I have been able to see strengths in people and work together with them implementing my strengths to maximize the potential of the group and do the best job that we can. I also noticed that working as a team and feeding off of others ideas really gets the engines going, creating a better work environment and creating healthy competition. Habit 7, Sharpen the Saw. This is taking a step back, viewing where you are, your goals, and life and really taking the time to meditate and think of how you are effective, and more importantly how you can become even more effective. When you â€Å"Sharpen the Saw† you are taking the time to focus on you. This can even be things like working on your physical health and mental well being. This is very important because if you feel tired, overworked, or stressed it is time to re-evaluate everything and have a plan to better yourself. I like to think of sharpening the saw as if I am looking at my effectiveness and goals from an outsiders view and how I can grow to become a better leader. I feel that I do not take enough time to do this. , partially because I do not manage my time as well as I would like to, to really evaluate myself and how I am doing. I do find it is really difficult to revisit my strengths and weaknesses and how to improve them because I am too worried about how everyone else is doing. When looking at the seven habits and the move from dependence, to independence, and ultimately interdependence I see how the seven habits can really be effective. I found that the seven habits, if utilized correctly can really change your life. The book however in my opinion goes too in-depth about how to use the habits. I feel that it could be condensed, giving more information about the habit itself, and less about how to live your life. The habits should be interpreted by each person from their own standpoint because everyone will use them differently. The part of the book I connected with most was the circle of concern and the circle of influence. This really hit the nail on the head for me. I find myself worried about too much instead of figuring out ways to use my influence to change them. If I was less concerned, and more influential the problems I face would not be there in the first place. This is something I have tried to work on ever since reading Covey’s book. I also have become more aware of myself. Habit 7 opened my eyes to the fact that I really do need to take care of myself more. By doing this I can effectively use the other six habits to my advantage. Overall I found the habits to be a guide for how to not only be a leader, but how to live life. The habits themselves are great tools to use in a leadership position or to just become a better person. The habits paired with my strengths and my management styles really all coincide. Now I just need to take what I know, take a step back and see how I can apply it to my everyday routine. I want to live like my favorite quote says, â€Å"Don’t count the days, make the days count. † Muhammad Ali. The only way to make the days count is hard work, effort, and the application of my strengths and the seven habits. How to cite Covey 7 Habits Analysis, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Photography Evolution Through Eps Cycle (Elite-Popular-Social Essays

Photography: Evolution Through Eps Cycle (Elite-Popular-Social In 1839 a process was invented that would forever change human perception and communication. Dubbed photography from the Greek words phos meaning light, and graphos meaning writing (Jeffrey, 240), the process was a much anticipated discovery. Long before its actual birth, the basic concept of of photography was common knowledge. It wasn't until the 1800s, however, that the idea of permenently fixing an image to a surface became tangible. Upon this discovery came the race to create the ?photograph.' Encoureged by a very eager middle class, early photography had many expirimentors. Two of which are credited as the fathers of the invention. Both of these fathers created photography simultaneously in 1839, announcing their success within three months of one another. Although each of these inventors imployed different techniques, the overall effect was the same, a permanently fixed photographic image. The first of the two technologies was the work of Louis Jaques Mande Daguerre. His method of photography incorporated the use of copper plates covered in light-sensitive chemicals as printable surfaces. Both the weight of the plates, as well as the availability of the chemicals kept photography out of the hands of the middle-class. This elite status, however, was short lived. Photography was the direct result of a demanding middle class causing a push for both inexpensive materials as well as simple devices. Photography did not spend much time in the elite stages of society. Instead the medium quickly evolved to accomodate a very eager public. Only ten years after its invention, a society of photographers was formed, organizing a profesion that was now becoming a fad. As one photo-historian explains: by 1851, ?pictures supplemented names, and identity became a matter of images rather than words? (Jeffrey, 241). Specialization of the medium took many forms, but it wasn't until 1880 that the most blatant of these forms surfaced. In 1880, the Daily Graphic, New York printed the first photographic image in its pages. By the early 1900s photo-journalism became a proffesion (Jeffrey, 243). As the 1900s progressed photography established itself as a solid a vital form of mass communication, both in print and exhibit. Bibliography Jeffrey, Ian. Photography: A Concise History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981. Art Essays

Friday, March 20, 2020

Free Essays on Psychology of a Serial Killer

Psychology of a Serial Killer The nineteen-seventies were an incredible decade. It was a decade of change, one of freedom, a time for great music. It was also an incredible decade for shock, fear and serial killers. John Wayne Gacy, an amateur clown, was a pedophiliac homosexual. He tortured and killed thirty three little boys and stored their remains under his house. David Berkowitz, a.k.a. the Son of Sam, stalked New York City from nineteen-sixty-seven to nineteen-seventy-seven. He claimed to have been following a voice from his dog that told him when and where to kill. Ted Bundy, who is believed to have killed at least thirty-four people, was charged for only three under his own defense- and in fact, he was commended by the judge for his own defense. He was put to death. With the combination of a very powerful media and a society fascinated with gruesome, sadistic crimes, modern serial killers have been put in the spotlight. We are enraptured with serial killers so much, that we pay seven dollars to go see a movie where everyone except the bad guys gets strangled, mutilated, or shot- and enjoy it in some sick way. The media goes out of its way to glamorize murder and terrify the public. We support killers like Charles Manson on Death Row with our tax dollars. In fact, we support them with more than that. About two months ago there was an art show in California entitled: The Death Row Art Show III. Pieces sold for thousands of dollars regardless of their aesthetic appeal, because of the identity of the artists. Serial killers are becoming as popular as rock stars. Serial killers are a development of the industrial world; they really didn't "come about" until the late eighteen-hundreds when society was becoming modernized and the threat of the new age sort of displaced some individuals so much they felt they had to kill to get their point across to society. Jack the Ripper is probably the most notorious killer in history becau... Free Essays on Psychology of a Serial Killer Free Essays on Psychology of a Serial Killer Psychology of a Serial Killer The nineteen-seventies were an incredible decade. It was a decade of change, one of freedom, a time for great music. It was also an incredible decade for shock, fear and serial killers. John Wayne Gacy, an amateur clown, was a pedophiliac homosexual. He tortured and killed thirty three little boys and stored their remains under his house. David Berkowitz, a.k.a. the Son of Sam, stalked New York City from nineteen-sixty-seven to nineteen-seventy-seven. He claimed to have been following a voice from his dog that told him when and where to kill. Ted Bundy, who is believed to have killed at least thirty-four people, was charged for only three under his own defense- and in fact, he was commended by the judge for his own defense. He was put to death. With the combination of a very powerful media and a society fascinated with gruesome, sadistic crimes, modern serial killers have been put in the spotlight. We are enraptured with serial killers so much, that we pay seven dollars to go see a movie where everyone except the bad guys gets strangled, mutilated, or shot- and enjoy it in some sick way. The media goes out of its way to glamorize murder and terrify the public. We support killers like Charles Manson on Death Row with our tax dollars. In fact, we support them with more than that. About two months ago there was an art show in California entitled: The Death Row Art Show III. Pieces sold for thousands of dollars regardless of their aesthetic appeal, because of the identity of the artists. Serial killers are becoming as popular as rock stars. Serial killers are a development of the industrial world; they really didn't "come about" until the late eighteen-hundreds when society was becoming modernized and the threat of the new age sort of displaced some individuals so much they felt they had to kill to get their point across to society. Jack the Ripper is probably the most notorious killer in history becau...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Kernel Sentence Definition and Examples

Kernel Sentence Definition and Examples In transformational grammar, a kernel sentence is a  simple declarative construction with only one verb. A kernel sentence is always active and affirmative. Also known as a basic sentence or a kernel. The concept of the kernel sentence was introduced in 1957 by linguist Z.S. Harris and featured in the early work of linguist Noam Chomsky. Examples and Observations According to writer Shefali Moitra, A kernel sentence does not contain any optional expression and is simple in the sense that it is unmarked in mood, therefore, it is indicative. It is also unmarked in voice, therefore, it is active rather than passive. And, finally, it is unmarked in polarity, therefore, it is a positive rather than a negative sentence. An example of a kernel sentence is The man opened the door, and an example of a non-kernel sentence is The man did not open the door.M.P. Sinha, PhD, scholar and writer, offers more examples: Even a sentence with an adjective, gerund, or infinitive is not a kernel sentence.(i) This is a black cow is made of two kernel sentences.This is a cow and The cow is black.(ii) I saw them crossing the river is made of I saw them and They were crossing the river.(iii) I want to go is made of I want and I go. Chomsky on Kernel Sentences According to American linguist, Noam Chomsky, [E]very sentence of the language will either belong to the kernel or will be derived from the strings underlying one or more kernel sentences by a sequence of one or more transformations. . . . [I]n order to understand a sentence it is necessary to know the kernel sentences from which it originates (more precisely, the terminal strings underlying these kernel sentences) and the phrase structure of each of these elementary components, as well as the transformational history of development of the given sentence from those kernel sentences. The general problem of analyzing the process understanding is thus reduced, in a sense, to the problem of explaining how kernel sentences are understood, these being considered the basic content elements from which the usual, more complex sentences of real life are formed by transformational development. Transformations British linguist P. H. Matthews says, A kernel clause which is both a sentence and a simple sentence, like His engine has stopped or The police have impounded his car, is a kernel sentence. Within this model, the construction of any other sentence, or any other sentence that consists of clauses, will be reduced to that of kernel sentences wherever possible. Thus the following: The police have impounded the car which he left outside the stadium. is a kernel clause, with transforms Have the police impounded the car which he left outside the stadium? and so on. It is not a kernel sentence, as it is not simple. But the relative clause, which he left outside the stadium, is a transform of the kernel sentences He left a car outside the stadium, He left the car outside the stadium, He left a bicycle outside the stadium, and so on. When this modifying clause is set aside, the remainder of the main clause, The police have impounded the car, is itself a kernel sentence. Sources Chomsky, Noam. Syntactic Structures, 1957; rev. ed, Walter de Gruyter, 2002. Matthews, P. H. Syntax. Cambridge University Press, 1981. Moitra, Shefali. Generative Grammar and Logical Form. Logic Identity and Consistency, edited by Pranab Kumar Sen. Allied Publishers, 1998. Sinha, M.P., PhD, Modern Linguistics. Atlantic Publishers, 2005.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Symbolism in The Glass Menagerie Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Symbolism in The Glass Menagerie - Essay Example For example, the glass menagerie, the urge of the protagonist to forget her sister, and the blowing out of the candles at the end of the play all employ a deeper layer of meaning. Williams employed the use of symbolism to introduce themes, characters, morals and values, and then to link them all together. Being a memory play, the glass menagerie allows not only for the director but also the reader of the play â€Å"to be presented with unusual freedom of convention† (Williams, ‘production notes, the Glass Menagerie’750). The nature and material of the play allow the employment of â€Å"unconventional techniques† like â€Å"expressionism† (Williams, ‘production notes, the Glass Menagerie’ 750). However, as Williams puts it, he does not allow for the plot to waver away from the truth, rather it is used only as a tool to bring the experience closer to â€Å"reality† (Williams, ‘production notes, the Glass Menagerie’ 750) . Since the play is based in memory, the use of such techniques makes it more realistic rather than unreal. Williams considered symbolism an important technique in play writing. According to him, â€Å"Art is made out of symbols the way your body is made out of vital tissues† (cited in Barnard 1). Symbolism acts as a binding force in the play and links all the characters, themes and environments together. Symbolism is such a vital part of the glass menagerie that critics, and even Williams himself, have often referred to it as an allegory (Barnard 7). The Glass Menagerie is considered a personal account from Williams’s life. The play is autobiographical in nature, with the characters of the play symbolising the true family of Williams and his experiences. Even the objects in the play, like the glass menagerie, belong to the real life of Williams (Barnard 6). For example, in the opening scene of the play Tom indicates that he is, â€Å"The opposite of a stage magician. He gives you illusion that has the appearance of truth. I give you truth in the pleasant disguise of illusion† (Williams, ‘the Glass Menagerie’). He points out that this is not an unrealistic story; rather, beneath the layers are found real characters, experiences, and relations. It is believed that when Williams’s sister Rose was treated with a prefrontal lobotomy for schizophrenia, which debilitated her for life, the experience resulted in the writing of this play (Bard 6). Rose and her memories are unarguably central to, and an inspiration of, many of Williams’s plays and characters (Southeastern). Amanda is symbolic of her mother, and the character Tom symbolizes Williams in actuality, as Tom is Williams’s legal name (Barnard 2). Williams and Tom both lived in a St. Louis apartment, and Tom, at the end of the play, becomes a wanderer like Williams (Barnard 3). However, some critics believe that Williams is represented in the play not by T om, but by the character of Laura (Bard 6). Due to his effeminacy during childhood, his father called Williams ‘Miss Nancy’ because he was like a little girl (Bard 6). According to Gross, Williams was very shy as a boy and did not like to socialize, causing him to be teased by his peers (cited in Bard 6). It can be assumed that Williams does identify himself with the character of